Urology is a discipline that involves the study of many organs and physiological systems. Urology can be broken down into the following subfields :
Endourology is the branch of urology that deals with minimally invasive surgical procedures. As opposed to open surgery, endourology is performed using small cameras and instruments inserted into the urinary tract.
Urologic oncology concerns the surgical treatment of malignant genitourinary diseases such as cancer of the prostate, adrenal glands, bladder, kidneys, ureters, testicles and penis. The medical treatment of advanced genitourinary cancer is managed by either a Urologist or an Oncologist depending on the cancer.
Neurourology concerns the control of the genitourinary system by the nervous system and of conditions causing abnormal urination. Neurological diseases and disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury can disrupt the lower urinary tract and result in conditions such as urinary incontinence, detrusor overactivity, urinary retention and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia.
Pediatric urology concerns urologic disorders in children. Such disorders include cryptorchism (undescended testes), congenital abnormalities of the genito-urinary tract, enuresis, underdeveloped genitalia (due to delayed growth or delayed puberty, often an endocrinological problem) and vesicoureteral reflux.
Andrology is mainly concerned with male infertility, erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disorders. Since male sexuality is largely controlled by hormones, andrology overlaps with endocrinology. Surgery in this field includes fertilization procedures, vasectomy reversals and the implantation of penile prostheses. Vasectomies may also be included here although most urologists perform this procedure.
Reconstructive urology reestablishes functionality of the genito-urinary tract. Strictures of the urethra or the ureter often require reconstructive surgery. Another frequent procedure is the reconstruction of the urinary bladder from small bowel in conjunction with cancer surgery. Cosmetic surgery such as penis enlargement is rarely done in urology.
Female urology is a branch that deals with overactive bladder, pelvic organ prolapse, and urinary incontinence. Thorough knowledge of the female pelvic floor together with urodynamic skills are necessary to diagnose and treat these disorders. Depending on the cause of the individual problem a medical or surgical treatment can be the solution.
Common Procedures :
- Trans - Urethral Needle Ablasion of the Prostat
- Cystoscopy with Retrograde Pyelogram
- Trans-Urethral Resection of Prostate